Life University Honor Code
Life University Honor Code
Our Commitment to Integrity
The Expectation Continuum: Tolerance, Respect and Honor
Life University embraces a central role for integrity in its pursuit of its Mission. Life recognizes that its approach to integrity covers an increasingly responsive continuum in approaches. At one end of the spectrum Life recognizes the highest ideals of integrity. We understand how each person’s commitment to integrity honors and elevates the entire community. That our approach to issues of integrity are grounded in the highest and noblest aspirations of human beings: to honor and defend the commitments of ourselves and others, to act honorably, to be honest, responsible, worthy of trust and act with the highest levels of responsibility. We see the exemplars of this approach throughout our country’s history: George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Thurgood Marshall, and Martin Luther King, Jr.
On the other end of the integrity spectrum Life University recognizes and understands that it is necessary to ground those high ideals into a well-codified and structured set of rules for its members to follow. These rules provide the barest minimum level of integrity that the community will tolerate. Anyone failing to behave at or above these minimums must face processes designed to improve their behavior to a higher level in order to continue their membership in the Life community.
The vast majority of the members of the Life community exist in between these two levels. Life University embraces the notion that integrity is not a state, rather that it is a daily striving, a struggle to reach closer to the highest ideals despite pressures to retreat to the lower levels that result in complaints, investigations, hearings, and sanctions. This results in a community based on mutual respect.
Life University understands and embraces the centrality of the students’ experience to learn more than academic content, but also to develop skills and values that will support them in managing their approach to integrity throughout their whole lives. To this end, Life charged a special task force in 2005 to develop this guide to academic integrity and the accompanying program. Life University’s leadership is committed to support in any way possible the manifestation of integrity on the campus, in its myriad forms and many levels of manifestation.
Life recognizes five essential components to integrity on campus and expects faculty members, staff and students to embrace these concepts and to live them on a daily basis, on and off campus:
Along with the rights of being a member of the Life academic community comes the principle of responsibility. Every member of the Life community is charged with accountability for upholding the institution’s core values and expectations. Every member of the Life community is expected to exemplify the University’s standards and practices.
At the core of the Life community lies a deep regard for other human beings. Faculty members and students respect each other as people, not as means to an end. Faculty members show respect by valuing students’ goals and ideas, by engaging students and each other with intellectual rigor and discipline, providing honest feedback to students and peers with a view to improvement, and by treating every member of the Life community as a valued individual.
Honesty is the cornerstone of the academic enterprise. At Life, our educational focus is on the core proficiencies. Intellectual and personal honesty is the hallmark of Life University’s endeavors to advance truth, and to explore deeper understanding of human health and behavior. In creating the next generation of graduates to initiate needed change in society, Life recognizes the centrality of both honesty and candor.
Life University’s policies and practices are based upon a fundamental recognition among its members that at the core of each and every human being is an innate intelligence that shares common origin. This understanding creates an awareness among Life community members of our common mission - to improve the world by applying intellects and energy in positive directions. This understanding provides the foundation for a fundamental expectation of positive and supportive behavior from all members of the Life community.
Life University provides fair evaluation processes for all members of the Life community. It is an important value at Life to have processes spelled out clearly and administered equitably across the organization.
Guy F. Riekeman, D.C.
Chancellor of Life University
Personal and Academic Integrity at Life University
The first of the Life Core Proficiencies at Life University is Integrity and Citizenship. The following documents will help explain the University’s expectations for personal and academic integrity. These documents are the Life University Honor Code, the Standards of Conduct, processes involved in administering the Honor Code and Standards of Conduct. A conduct flow chart and the online incident report can be found online by visiting the Student Conduct website at http://www.life.edu/campus-life-pages/student-conduct/. Please take the time to familiarize yourself with the content and processes contained within this document and online.
LIFE UNIVERSITY HONOR CODE
All members of the Life University community are entrusted with the responsibility of upholding ethical goals and values. Essential to the fundamental purpose of Life University is a personal commitment to the principles of Integrity and Citizenship.
Integrity provides the underpinning for the responsible exercise of our rights and responsibilities as civil human beings within our community. Integrity leads to empowerment and excellence, while a lack of integrity results in mediocrity. Life University teaches students how to achieve and maintain personal integrity and function as valued citizens within the academic, health care and larger communities.
As individuals and members of the Life University community, we commit ourselves to act with civility, honesty, and responsibility, and above all, with integrity and honor. We are accountable for all that we say, write and do. We are responsible for the academic integrity of our work. We pledge that we will not misrepresent our work, nor give or receive unauthorized aid. We commit ourselves to behave in a manner that demonstrates concern for the personal dignity, rights and freedoms of all members of the community. We are respectful of Life University property and the property of others. We will not tolerate a lack of respect for these values by anyone.
Life University complies with federal and state law, and does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, gender, religion, national origin, age, sexual orientation, disability, medical condition, pregnancy, citizenship or veteran status. The University also prohibits sexual harassment. This nondiscrimination policy applies to all employment practices at Life University, and to the admission, access to treatment in, and employment in, LIFE’s education programs. Inquiries regarding LIFE’s student-related nondiscrimination policy may be directed to the Director of Human Resources at (770) 426-2930.
This Honor Code was developed following discussions among a broad range of constituencies within Life University, encompassing students, faculty, staff, administrators, and trustees. This Honor Code is a living document that will evolve with time. In order to better foster and advancean environment of ethical conduct in its academic community. Life University may amend both the substantive requirements and the enforcement procedures contained herein to reflect experience gained from its implementation.
Any modification of the Honor Code must be approved by the Board of Trustees upon recommendation from the President. The Life University Standards of Conduct govern the enforcement of the Honor Code. Modifications and variations in the Standards of Conduct, including the use of alternative procedures in specific contexts as mandated by federal or state law, are subject to the approval of the President. In addition, upon recommendation from a Dean, Director or the Faculty Senate, the President, Vice President of Academic Affairs or the Vice President of Student Services may permit individual units of Life University to adopt and implement area-specific standards of conduct. However, these standards may not authorize or condone conduct prohibited by, or inconsistent with, the Honor Code.
Any changes to the Standards of Conduct shall be published in the Academic Quarterly and shall be in effect from the day of publication forward.
The term “student” includes all persons taking/ auditing courses at Life University, either full-time or part-time, pursuing undergraduate, graduate, or professional studies. Persons who withdraw after allegedly violating the Standards of Conduct, who are not officially enrolled for a particular term but who have a continuing relationship with Life University or who have been notified of their acceptance for admission are considered “students” as are persons who are living in Life University residence, although not enrolled in this institution.
The term “respondent” refers to any student or student organization or member of a student organization who has been formally charged with alleged violations of the Standards of Conduct
The term “complainant” refers to any Life University community member who has filed a complaint with the Director of Student Conduct, alleging that one or more violations of the Standards of Conduct have occurred.
The term “Conduct Review Board” (CRB) and Administrative Hearing Officer (AHO) refers to any person or persons authorized by the Director of Student Conduct to determine whether a student has been found to have violated the Standards of Conduct and to recommend sanctions that may be imposed when a rules violation has been committed.
The Life University Standards of Conduct shall apply to all Life University Students. The procedures in the Life University Student Handbook shall govern and be followed in the case of any alleged violation of the Honor Code. When a member of the Life University community serves in multiple roles, the applicable handbook will be determined by which role the respondent was serving in at the time of the alleged violation. Any conflict or dispute concerning which procedure governs the enforcement of this Honor Code shall be resolved by the Vice President of Student Services.
While the activities covered by the legal system of the larger community and those covered by the Life University Standards of Conduct may overlap, it is important to note that the community’s laws and the Life University Standards of Conduct operate independently and do not substitute for each other. Life University may pursue enforcementof its own Standards of Conduct whether or not legal proceedings are underway or even being considered, and may use information from third party sources (such as law enforcement agencies and the courts) to determine whether the Life University Standards of Conduct have been violated. Life University Standards of Conduct apply to student behavior both on campus and off campus, and enforcement of these Standards may occur regardless of where the behavior took place.
In the case of allegations of sexual misconduct, the Life University Sexual Misconduct Policy and Procedures shall apply and supersedes the procedures and policies set forth in the Honor Code.
Standards of Conduct
The Life University Standards of Conduct apply to all members of the Life community. Each constituency will be governed by the appropriate handbook, policies or laws. Students are governed by the Student Disciplinary Procedures contained in this document. Faculty members are governed by the Faculty Handbook and all employees are governed by the Employee Handbook. Members of the Board of Trustees are governed byThe Georgia Nonprofit Corporation Code, the Articles of Incorporation, the By-Laws and other policies of the Life University Board of Trustees. Life University expects its community members to recognize the strength of personal differences while respecting the institutional values embodied in the Honor Code. They are encouraged to think and act for themselves, as that is the purpose of higher education. However, they must also understand that Life University has non-negotiable values in which it strongly believes. The purpose of these Standards of Conduct is tocommunicate these values to the Life University community, and promote an environment conducive to education, work, scholarly activity and recreation.
Civility | Community | Integrity | Responsibility
“In recognizing the humanity of our fellow beings, we pay ourselves the highest tribute.” -Thurgood Marshall
1. Disorderly Conduct. Violations of the Honor Code include, but arenot limited to:
a. Any act that is lewd, indecent, disruptive or that otherwise breaches the peace, regardless of intent, when such an act takes place on Life University premises or at any event sponsored or offered by Life University.
b. Indulging in conduct during a class, examination session or while in clinic, which is so disruptive as to infringe upon the rights of another member of the Life University community.
2. Harassment. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Any act, display, or communication that creates a hostile environment or cause substantial emotional injury and/or distress on the part of the person or persons to whom it is specifically directed. This behavior requently, but not always, involves a pattern of conduct.
b. Any attempt to repeatedly make contact with a person over his/her stated objections, when such contact serves no legitimate purpose. This includes, but is not limited to, intentionally following another person on campus or in or about a public place or places.
c. Any unauthorized use of electronic or other devices to make an audio, video or digital record of any person while on Life University premises without his/her prior knowledge, and valid consent, when such a recording is likely to cause injury or distress. This includes, but is not limited to, surreptitiously taking pictures of another person in a gym, locker room, or restroom. This provision does not preclude Life University from engaging in surveillance for the purposes of providing a safe and secure environment for its students, faculty and staff.
d. Retaliation against another student or member of the Life University community for their participation in any portion of the referral or student conduct process which includes, but is not limited to, serving as a witness in conduct hearings.
3. Provocation. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Referring with disrespect to any peer, health professional, or other members of the Life University community.
b. Any act, display, or communication that may reasonably be expected to cause an immediate breach of the peace by the person or persons to whom it is specifically directed.
c. Any act, display, or communication that reasonably may be expected to cause disruption of a Life University event. This includes, but is not limited to, the use of racial epithets or other patently offensive language in a manner that is likely to provoke an immediate breach of the peace.
d. Any display or communication, whether oral or visual, that encourages an audience to take immediate action, when such action may reasonably be expected to inflict harm upon a person or persons and/or cause damage to property.
“This City is what it is because our citizens are who they are.”-Plato
1. Endangerment. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Any act, display, or communication that would cause a reasonable person to fear for his/her personal safety. This includes, but is not limited to, physical coercion and/or restraint
b. Causing bodily harm to a person, or engaging in aggressive physical contact that would likely have caused bodily harm, despite the lack of any measurable harm
c. Any act that directly or indirectly creates a substantial risk tothe safety of a person or persons and/or the Life University community. This includes, but is not limited to, falsely reporting an emergency and/or engaging in the unauthorized possession, use, or alteration of any Life University-owned emergency or safety equipment.
2. Hazing. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Participation in and/or having knowledge of and failing to report any initiation process which requires any member of the Life University community to participate in, or subjects them to, any activity which produces or is likely to produce physical, mental, or emotional pain, discomfort, humiliation, or embarrassment, regardless of that person’s willingness to participate in such activity in connection with or as a condition or precondition of gaining acceptance, membership, office, or other status in a school organization.
3. Interference. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Any act that disrupts or interferes with any educational, clinical, administrative, or other aspect of Life University’s operations. This provision is not intended to prohibit organized, peaceful and orderly protests.
4. Non-Compliance. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
5. Violation of Life University Policies. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Any unauthorized entry into, use, or occupation of Life University facilities that are locked, closed to student activities, or otherwise restricted as to use or that have not been reserved for use through the proper Life University authorities.
b. Any failure to report violations of these Standards of Conduct, which occur in one’s presence and/or in one’s designated iving area on Life University premises. Anyone who encourages, instigates or endorses such misconduct through inaction may also be held responsible for violating the appropriate Standards of Conduct.
c. Any failure to take reasonable steps to prevent one’s guest or visitor to Life University from violating these Standards of Conduct. Anyone who allows such misconduct may also be held responsible for violating the appropriate Standards of Conduct.
d. Any act which is in violation of Life University policies not outlined in these Standards of Conduct. These include, but are not limited to, campus housing policies, discrimination policies, parking regulations, intellectual property policies, sexual misconduct policies[AC2] , Student Services policies, course syllabi,and policies governing the appropriate use of Life University technology.
“Honesty is the first chapter in the book of wisdom.” -Thomas Jefferson
1. Academic Misconduct. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Referring to or possessing materials or sources or employing devices not authorized by the instructor during an academic or clinical evaluation.
b. Providing to and/or receiving from another person assistance during an academic or clinical evaluation in a manner not authorized by the instructor.
c. Possessing, buying, selling, obtaining, and/or using a copy of any materials intended to be used as an instrument of summative or academic evaluation, in advance of its administration, not authorized by the instructor.
d. Possessing, buying, selling, obtaining, and/or using a copy of any previous assessment instrument not authorized or released for student availability by the instructor.
e. Utilizing a substitute in any academic/clinical evaluation or attendance taking process.
f. Acting as a substitute for another person in any academic/clinical evaluation or attendance taking process.
g. Practicing any form of deceit in any academic or clinical evaluation or attendance taking process.
h. Providing aid and/or depending on the aid of others in the research, preparation, creation, writing, performing, or publication of work to be submitted for academic credit or evaluation. Faculty must provide the specific list or types ofresources/study aids that are not authorized.
i. Plagiarism , which includes but is not limited to presenting as one’s own, for academic evaluation, the ideas, representations, or words of another person or persons, including internet sources without customary and proper acknowledgment of sources.
j. Submitting the work of another person in a manner that represents the work to be one’s own.
k. Permitting one’s work to be submitted by another person without the instructor’s authorization.
l. Attempting to influence or change one’s academic evaluation or record on any basis other than achievement or merit.
m. Failing to cooperate, if called upon, in the investigation or disposition of any allegation of dishonesty pertaining to another member of the Life University community.
n. Presenting oneself, with the intent to deceive, as having credentials one has not yet earned.
2. Ethical Misconduct. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Failing to comply with published clinic policies, rules and/or regulations.
b. Misrepresenting oneself or allowing oneself to be incorrectly identified to any member of the public as a Doctor of Chiropractic or other licensed health care practitioner.
c. Student interns caring for or attempting to provide care for, and/or advising patients, directly or indirectly, at any time or place, without the supervision and prior approval of Life University’s licensed clinical faculty, or other licensed Doctors of Chiropractic specifically designated by the appropriate Life University official to supervise student intern care.
d. Student interns providing care or attempting to provide care for or services that have not been approved by Life University’s licensed clinical faculty, other licensed Doctors of Chiropractic or other licensed health care practitioner, specifically designated by the appropriate Life University official to approve such care or services.
e. Failing to behave in a professional manner when in a professional relationship with any member of the Life University community.
f. Divulging or allowing access to confidential student or patient information, unless required by law (FERPA, HIPAA ).
g. Failing to obtain prior written consent of the student or patient and/or failing to adequately de-identify patient information used in writing, reports, classroom lectures or other public forums.
h. Removing student or patient records or diagnostic images from classrooms, offices, or clinic facilities without proper authorization.
i. Failing to use due diligence to accurately note in patient records: all data derived directly from the patient, all clinical assessments of the patient, all changes in the patient’s condition, all recommendations to the patient and all care delivered to and/or performed on the patient.
j. Withdrawing from the care of a patient without prior approval from the clinic doctor of record. All recommendations of referral, care and/or transfer of a patient, for any reason, are privileges reserved for the clinic faculty doctor(s) of record.
k. Subordinating the health and welfare of a patient and/or the quality of patient care to anyone’s expectation of academic,personal or monetary reward or lack thereof.
l. Paying for a patient’s care, and/or inducing and/or attempting to induce members of the public, patients or members of a patient’s family to submit to health care in exchange for monetary compensation or anything else of value.
m. Transporting anyone (other than one’s own immediate family members) to and/or from Life University premises for the purpose of patient evaluation or care.
n. Advertising health care services other than as specifically defined as allowable by the state, Life University and/or clinic regulations.
o. Engaging solicitors or agents for the purpose of soliciting patients, or becoming involved in such endeavors.
p. Failing to suspend, terminate or limit the scope of involvement with a subordinate (patient, student, etc.) when personal problems or conflicts, or a personal relationship with the subordinate, interferes with or may interfere with the professional relationship.
3. Dishonesty. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Any conscious and/or deliberate provision of false or misleading information to a Life University official in the performance of his/her duties.
b. Any conscious and/or deliberate presentation of false or misleading testimony during a disciplinary hearing.
c. Any forgery, misuse, misrepresentation, and/or unauthorized alteration of any Life University or other official documents, records, or credentials. This includes, but is not limited to, the inclusion of false information on any official form or document submitted to Life University.
d. Any possession or use of forged or falsified identification. This includes, but is not limited to, use of another person’s identification and/or the possession of “novelty” identification that misrepresents one’s age or identity.
4. Theft. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Any appropriation or possession of property (including intellectual property (e.g. current or old tests, instructor’s notes, etc.) by a member of the Life University community without the consent of the owner or person legally responsible for such property. This includes, but is not limited to, the possession of property a member of the Life University community should reasonably be expected to know is stolen property.
b. Any appropriation of items provided without charge when such appropriation exceeds reasonable limits and/or restrictions imposed by the owner or person legally responsible for such materials.
c. Any unauthorized utilization of labor and/or services provided by Life University.
d. Providing and/or copying printed or electronic materials not authorized by the instructor. These include, but are not limited to, lab manuals, textbooks, workbooks, etc.
“All your scholarship, all your study of Shakespeare and Wordsworth would be vain if at the same time you do not build your character and attain mastery over your thoughts and actions.” -Mohandas Gandhi
1. Alcohol Misuse. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Any possession or use of alcohol by any person under the age of twenty-one, or any possession or use of alcohol by any person in violation of the relevant Life University policies.
b. Any presence on campus while under the influence of alcohol.
c. Any unauthorized manufacture or distribution of alcohol while on Life University premises or at any Life University-sponsored event, or any distribution of alcohol to any person under the age of twenty-one.
d. Any act which causes a person to ingest alcohol without his/her knowing and valid consent.
e. Any possession on Life University premises of any item designed, fashioned, and/or modified to facilitate and/or disguise the use of alcohol in violation of the Standards of Conduct, whether or not the item has actually been used for such purposes.
2. Drug Misuse. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Any possession or use of any illegal drug or other controlled substance, or any possession or use of any prescription drug or other controlled substance except as directed by a licensed physician.
b. Any presence on campus while under the influence of any illegal substance.
c. Any manufacture and/or distribution or intent to distribute any illegal drug, or any manufacture and/or distribution of any prescription drug or other controlled substance without a license for such conduct.
d. Any act which causes a person to ingest any illegal or prescription drug or other controlled substance without his/her knowing and valid consent.
e. Any possession on Life University premises of any item designed, fashioned, and/or modified to facilitate and/ or disguise the use of any illegal drug or other controlled substance in violation of the Standards of Conduct, whether or not the item has actually been used for such purposes.
3. Tobacco and Smoke Free Policy. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Any smoking, using, selling, freely distributing, and advertising of tobacco products and/or electronic smoking devices (ex. e-cigarettes, apes, etc.) in all facilities and on all University property, including University- owned vehicles, and in any privately-owned vehicle parked or operated on University property. [AC3]
4. Physical Misconduct. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Any act causing, or intended or likely to cause, bodily harm upon and/or unwanted physical contact with any person, regardless of intent.
5. Property Damage. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Any act causing, or intended or likely to cause, damage to property, without the knowing and valid consent of the owner or person legally responsible for such property, regardless of intent.
b. Any intentional destruction, defacement, and/or unauthorized alteration of approved materials posted or distributed in accordance with Life University policies. This includes, but is not limited to, bulletin boards or the materials posted on them[AC4] .[AC5]
6. Weapons. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. The unauthorized carrying or possession of any type of weapon, firearm, ammunition, explosive, or illegal knife (any dirk, bowie knife,switchblade knife, ballistic knife, any other knife having a blade of two or more inches, straight-edge razor, razor blade with the exception of kitchen knives inside University residence halls) on the premises, Life University is strictly prohibited. This prohibition expressly includes those persons licensed to carry concealed firearms. In addition, and for he safety of those in the University community, other prohibited items include, but are not limited to paintball guns, projectile launchers including Air Soft@, BB guns/pistols, facsimiles of a weapon, and fireworks. The possession of non-lethal self-defense instruments (such as Mace or pepper-spray) is not prohibited; however, the reckless or inappropriate use of such devices may be considered a violation of the Honor Code. For purposes of this policy, the premises of Life University are defined as any property, building, or portion of a building or property that Life owns or occupies, whether on a temporary or permanent basis, and any off-site premises where Life University is conducting any activity sponsored by the University. This includes all parking lots, parking areas, sidewalks and walkways, and all University vehicles and equipment.
b. As any object has the potential to become a weapon, Life University reserves the right to define a weapon based on its potential for damage or threat.
7. Hoverboards. Violations of the Honor Code include, but are not limited to:
a. Any use, possession, or storage of hoverboards and similar electronic devices on campus is prohibited.
Life University Responsible Action Protocol (RAP)
Life University considers the health and safety of its students a priority concern. As members of the Life family, students are expected to take active steps to care for one another. The University is aware that when faced with an alcohol and/or other drug emergency, students may not want to seek help for themselves or other students for fear they may face sanctions by the University. In an effort to create a culture of care and encourage students to seek emergency help for themselves or others, the Responsible Action Protocol has been created.
The Responsible Action Protocol (RAP) provides alternative resolution options for students who seek help themselves or for other students with alcohol and/or other drug related emergencies.
In situations involving alcohol or drug related emergencies, students are generally expected to -
- Contact an appropriate resource (i.e. law enforcement or University staff) for assistance or on behalf of a drugged or intoxicated student ;
- If calling on behalf of another student, remain with that student until help arrives;
- Cooperate with emergency officials, including providing information on themselves and information requested on the student needing assistance;
- Complete a meeting with the Director of Student Conduct within 5 business days of the initial report and agree to complete any additional assessments or treatment requested by the Director.
If the student complies with the above mentioned guidelines, in most cases, no formal University disciplinary actions or sanctions will be imposed for alcohol or drug infractions, but the incident will be documented, and educational, community, and health initiatives — as well as contact with a student’s parents or family — may be required as a condition of deferring disciplinary actions or sanctions. Students who are referred to educational, community, and health initiatives but fail to meet and complete the recommendations in their entirety may be subject to further action.
Failure to follow the above protocol may result in the RAP being revoked and may result in sanctions for violating University policy.
If a representative of an organization hosting an event calls for medical assistance, this act of responsibility might mitigate potential conduct consequences that could arise against the organization, i.e., the fact that an organization sought help might be considered in potential sanctioning for university policy violations.
The RAP does not apply to individuals experiencing an alcohol or drug related emergency who are found by law enforcement or University Personnel (Resident Assistants, staff, faculty, campus safety officers, etc).
If a student who has used RAP has any subsequent incidents, these will be handled through the regular student conduct process. If a violation is found to occur, prior records, including involvement in the RAP, will be considered for sanctioning purposes.
The University reserves the right to adjudicate any case in which the reported behavior is repeated, flagrant, or egregious.
Students should be aware that the RAP does not prevent or dismiss action by local, state and federal authorities.[AC1]